Anonymity, Opsec & Privacy
Table of Contents
- Browser Related
- Communications Security
- Data Collection
- Tool Configuration
- Emissions Security
- OS X Security and Privacy Guide
- Bugger - Adam Curtis
- Maybe the real state secret is that spies aren't very good at their jobs and don't know much about the world
- Mobile Phone Data lookup
- Privacy Online Test And Resource Compendium
- Winning and Quitting the Privacy Game What it REALLY takes to have True Privacy in the 21st Century - Derbycon 7
- The Gruqgs blog
- 'I've Got Nothing to Hide' and Other Misunderstandings of Privacy
- We live in a surveillance state. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies have access to a huge amount of data about us, enabling them to learn intimate, private details about our lives. In part, the ease with which they can obtain such information reflects the fact that our laws have failed to keep up with advances in technology. However, privacy enhancing technologies can offer real protections even when the law does not. That intelligence agencies like the NSA are able to collect records about every telephone call made in the United States, or engage in the bulk surveillance of Internet communications is only possible because so much of our data is transmitted in the clear. The privacy enhancing technologies required to make bulk surveillance impossible and targeted surveillance more difficult already exist. We just need to start using them.
- Browser Related
- Communication Security
- Data Collection
- Speaker Recognition in Encrypted Voice Streams - Michael Backes,Goran Doychev,Markus Durmuth,Boris Kopf
- We develop a novel approach for unveiling the identity of speakers who participate in encrypted voice communication, solely by eavesdropping on the encrypted traffic. Our approach exploits the concept of voice activity detection (VAD), a widely used technique for reducing the bandwidth consumption of voice traffic. We show that the reduction of traffic caused by VAD techniques creates patterns in the encrypted traffic, which in turn reveal the patterns of pauses in the underlying voice stream. We show that these patterns are speaker-characteristic, and that they are sufficient to undermine the anonymity of the speaker in encrypted voice communication. In an empirical setup with 20 speakers our analysis is able to correctly identify an unknown speaker in about 48% of all cases. Our work extends and generalizes existing work that exploits variable bit-rate encoding for identifying the conversation language and content of encrypted voice streams)
- HORNET: High-speed Onion Routing at the Network Layer
- Decoy Routing: Toward Unblockable Internet Communication
- We present decoy routing, a mechanism capable of circumventing common network filtering strategies. Unlike other circumvention techniques, decoy routing does not require a client to connect to a specific IP address (which is easily blocked) in order to provide circumvention. We show that if it is possible for a client to connect to any unblocked host/service, then decoy routing could be used to connect them to a blocked destination without coop- eration from the host. This is accomplished by placing the circumvention service in the network itself – where a single device could proxy traffic between a significant fraction of hosts – instead of at the edge.
- obfs4 (The obfourscator)
- This is a protocol obfuscation layer for TCP protocols. Its purpose is to keep a third party from telling what protocol is in use based on message contents. Unlike obfs3, obfs4 attempts to provide authentication and data integrity, though it is still designed primarily around providing a layer of obfuscation for an existing authenticated protocol like SSH or TLS.
- obfs3 (The Threebfuscator)
- This is a protocol obfuscation layer for TCP protocols. Its purpose is to keep a third party from telling what protocol is in use based on message contents. Like obfs2, it does not provide authentication or data integrity. It does not hide data lengths. It is more suitable for providing a layer of obfuscation for an existing authenticated protocol, like SSH or TLS.
- Wifi Tracking: Collecting the (probe) Breadcrumbs - David Switzer
- Wifi probes have provided giggles via Karma and Wifi Pineapples for years, but is there more fun to be had? Like going from sitting next to someone on a bus, to knowing where they live and hang out? Why try to MITM someone’s wireless device in an enterprise environment where they may notice — when getting them at their favorite burger joint is much easier. In this talk we will review ways of collecting and analyzing probes. We’ll use the resulting data to figure out where people live, their daily habits, and discuss uses (some nice, some not so nice) for this information. We’ll also dicuss how to make yourself a little less easy to track using these methods. Stingrays are price prohibitive, but for just tracking people’s movements.. this is cheap and easy.
- Tool Configuration
- SkypeMorph: Protocol Obfuscation for Tor Bridges
- The Tor network is designed to provide users with low- latency anonymous communications. Tor clients build circuits with publicly listed relays to anonymously reach their destinations. However, since the relays are publicly listed, they can be easily blocked by censoring adversaries. Consequently, the Tor project envisioned the possibility of unlisted entry points to the Tor network, commonly known as bridges. We address the issue of preventing censors from detecting the bridges by observing the communications between them and nodes in their network. We propose a model in which the client obfuscates its messages to the bridge in a widely used protocol over the Inter- net. We investigate using Skype video calls as our target protocol and our goal is to make it difficult for the censor- ing adversary to distinguish between the obfuscated bridge connections and actual Skype calls using statistical compar- isons. We have implemented our model as a proof-of-concept pluggable transport for Tor, which is available under an open-source licence. Using this implementation we observed the obfuscated bridge communications and compared it with those of Skype calls and presented the results.
- StegoTorus: A Camouflage Proxy for the Tor Anonymity System
- Internet censorship by governments is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Internet users and censors are locked in an arms race: as users find ways to evade censorship schemes, the censors develop countermeasures for the evasion tactics. One of the most popular and effective circumvention tools, Tor, must regularly adjust its network traffic signature to remain usable. We present StegoTorus, a tool that comprehensively disguises Tor from protocol analysis. To foil analysis of packet contents, Tor’s traffic is steganographed to resemble an innocuous cover protocol, such as HTTP. To foil analysis at the transport level, the Tor circuit is distributed over many shorter-lived connections with per-packet characteristics that mimic cover-protocol traffic. Our evaluation demonstrates that StegoTorus improves the resilience of Tor to fingerprinting attacks and delivers usable performance.
- Spoiled Onions
- In this research project, we were monitoring all exit relays for several months in order to expose, document, and thwart malicious or misconfigured relays. In particular, we monitor exit relays with two scanners we developed specifically for that purpose: exitmap and HoneyConnector. Since September 2013, we discovered 65 malicious or misconfigured exit relays which are listed in Table 1 and Table 2 in our research paper. These exit relays engaged in various attacks such as SSH and HTTPS MitM, HTML injection, SSL stripping, and traffic sniffing. We also found exit relays which were unintentionally interfering with network traffic because they were subject to DNS censorship.
- MAT: Metadata Anonymisation Toolkit
- MAT is a toolbox composed of a GUI application, a CLI application and a library.
- fteproxy is fast, free, open source, and cross platform. It has been shown to circumvent network monitoring software such as bro, YAF, nProbe, l7-filter, and appid, as well as closed-source commercial DPI systems
- Streisand sets up a new server running L2TP/IPsec, OpenSSH, OpenVPN, Shadowsocks, sslh, Stunnel, and a Tor bridge. It also generates custom configuration instructions for all of these services. At the end of the run you are given an HTML file with instructions that can be shared with friends, family members, and fellow activists.
- Exitmap is a fast and modular Python-based scanner for Tor exit relays. Exitmap modules implement tasks that are run over (a subset of) all exit relays. If you have a background in functional programming, think of exitmap as a map() interface for Tor exit relays. Modules can perform any TCP-based networking task; fetching a web page, uploading a file, connecting to an SSH server, or joining an IRC channel.
- OnionCat - an Anonymous VPN adapter
- Count the number of people around you 👨👨👦 by monitoring wifi signals 📡
- Protects you against tracking through "free", centralized, content delivery. It prevents a lot of requests from reaching networks like Google Hosted Libraries, and serves local files to keep sites from breaking. Complements regular content blockers.
- Decentraleyes - Github
- A web browser extension that emulates Content Delivery Networks to improve your online privacy. It intercepts traffic, finds supported resources locally, and injects them into the environment. All of this happens automatically, so no prior configuration is required.
- Destroy Windows Spying tool
- meek is a blocking-resistant pluggable transport for Tor. It encodes a data stream as a sequence of HTTPS requests and responses. Requests are reflected through a hard-to-block third-party web server in order to avoid talking directly to a Tor bridge. HTTPS encryption hides fingerprintable byte patterns in Tor traffic.sek
- HTTPLeaks - All possible ways, a website can leak HTTP requests
- Android application that leverages on-device sensors to provide monitoring and protection of physical spaces.
- PISSED: Privacy In a Surveillance State Evading Detection - Joe Cicero - CYPHERCON11
- Fuck These Guys: Practical Countersurveillance Lisa Lorenzin - BsidesSF15
- We've all seen the steady stream of revelations about the NSA's unconstitutional, illegal mass surveillance. Seems like there's a new transgression revealed every week! I'm getting outrage fatigue. So I decided to fight back... by looking for practical, realistic, everyday actions I can take to protect my privacy and civil liberties on the Internet, and sharing them with my friends. Join me in using encryption and privacy technology to resist eavesdropping and tracking, and to start to opt out of the bulk data collection that the NSA has unilaterally decided to secretly impose upon the world. Let's take back the Internet, one encrypted bit at a time.
- Dr. Philip Polstra - Am I Being Spied On?
- Talk on cheap/free counter measures
- DNS May Be Hazardous to Your Health - Robert Stucke
- Great talk on attacking DNS
- Blinding The Surveillance State - Christopher Soghoian - DEF CON 22
- CounterStrike Lawful Interception
- This short talk will cover the standards, devices and implementation of a mandatory part of our western Internet infrastructure. The central question is whether an overarching interception functionality might actually put national Internet infrastructure at a higher risk of being attacked successfully. The question is approached in this talk from a purely technical point of view, looking at how LI functionality is implemented by a major vendor and what issues arise from that implementation. Routers and other devices may get hurt in the process.
- Detecting and Defending Against a Surveillance State - Robert Rowley - DEF CON 22
- Retail Surveillance / Retail Countersurveillance 50 most unwanted retail surveillance technologies / 50 most wanted countersurveillance technologies
- Masquerade: How a Helpful Man-in-the-Middle Can Help You Evade Monitoring** - Defcon22
- Sometimes, hiding the existence of a communication is as important as hiding the contents of that communication. While simple network tunneling such as Tor or a VPN can keep the contents of communications confidential, under active network monitoring or a restrictive IDS such tunnels are red flags which can subject the user to extreme scrutiny. Format-Transforming Encryption FTE can be used to tunnel traffic within otherwise innocuous protocols, keeping both the contents and existence of the sensitive traffic hidden. However, more advanced automated intrusion detection, or moderately sophisticated manual inspection, raise other red flags when a host reporting to be a laser printer starts browsing the web or opening IM sessions, or when a machine which appears to be a Mac laptop sends network traffic using Windows-specific network settings. We present Masquerade: a system which combines FTE and host OS profile selection to allow the user to emulate a user-selected operating system and application-set in network traffic and settings, evading both automated detection and frustrating after-the-fact analysis.
- The NSA: Capabilities and Countermeasures** - Bruce Schneier - ShmooCon 2014
- Edward Snowden has given us an unprecedented window into the NSA's surveillance activities. Drawing from both the Snowden documents and revelations from previous whistleblowers, I will describe the sorts of surveillance the NSA does and how it does it. The emphasis is on the technical capabilities of the NSA, not the politics of their actions. This includes how it conducts Internet surveillance on the backbone, but is primarily focused on their offensive capabilities: packet injection attacks from the Internet backbone, exploits against endpoint computers and implants to exfiltrate information, fingerprinting computers through cookies and other means, and so on. I will then talk about what sorts of countermeasures are likely to frustrate the NSA. Basically, these are techniques to raise the cost of wholesale surveillance in favor of targeted surveillance: encryption, target hardening, dispersal, and so on.
- Exploiting Lawful Intercept to Wiretap the Internet
- This paper will review Cisco's architecture for lawful intercept from asecurity perspective. We explain how a number of different weaknesses in its design coupled with publicly disclosed security vulnerabilities could enable a malicious person to access the interface and spy on communications without leaving a trace. We then provide a set of recommendations for the redesign of the interface as well as SNMP authentication in general to better mitigate the security risks.
- Protocol Misidentification Made Easy with Format-Transforming Encryption
- Deep packet inspection (DPI) technologies provide much needed visibility and control of network traffic using port- independent protocol identification, where a network flow is labeled with its application-layer protocol based on packet contents. In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive evaluation of a large set of DPI systems from the point of view of protocol misidentification attacks, in which adver- saries on the network attempt to force the DPI to mislabel connections. Our approach uses a new cryptographic prim- itive called format-transforming encryption (FTE), which extends conventional symmetric encryption with the ability to transform the ciphertext into a format of our choosing. We design an FTE-based record layer that can encrypt arbitrary application-layer traffic, and we experimentally show that this forces misidentification for all of the evaluated DPI systems. This set includes a proprietary, enterprise-class DPI system used by large corporations and nation-states. We also show that using FTE as a proxy system incurs no latency overhead and as little as 16% bandwidth overhead compared to standard SSH tunnels. Finally, we integrate our FTE proxy into the Tor anonymity network and demon- strate that it evades real-world censorship by the Great Fire- wall of China
- Protocol Misidentification Made Easy with Format-Transforming Encryption
- Deep packet inspection DPI technologies provide much- needed visibility and control of network traffic using port- independent protocol identification, where a network ow is labeled with its application-layer protocol based on packet contents. In this paper, we provide the most comprehensive evaluation of a large set of DPI systems from the point of view of protocol misidentification attacks, in which adver- saries on the network attempt to force the DPI to mislabel connections. Our approach uses a new cryptographic primitive called format-transforming encryption FTE, which extends conventional symmetric encryption with the ability to transform the ciphertext into a format of our choosing. We design an FTE-based record layer that can encrypt arbi- trary application-layer traffic, and we experimentally show that this forces misidentification for all of the evaluated DPI systems. This set includes a proprietary, enterprise-class DPI system used by large corporations and nation-states. We also show that using FTE as a proxy system incurs no latency overhead and as little as 16% bandwidth overhead compared to standard SSH tunnels. Finally, we integrate our FTE proxy into the Tor anonymity network and demonstrate that it evades real-world censorship by the Great Firewall of China.
- Unblocking the Internet: Social networks foil censors
- Many countries and administrative domains exploit control over their communication infrastructure to censor online content. This paper presents the design, im plementation and evaluation of Kaleidoscope , a peer-to-peer system of relays that enables users within a censored domain to access blocked content. The main challenge facing Kaleidoscope is to resist the cens or’s efforts to block the circumvention system itself. Kaleidoscope achieves blocking-resilienc e using restricted service discovery that allows each user to discover a small set of unblocked relays while only exposing a small fraction of relays to the censor. To restrict service discovery, Kaleidoscope leverages a trust network where links reflects real-world social relationships among users and uses a limited advertisement protocol based on random routes to disseminate relay addresses along the trust netwo rk; the number of nodes reached by a relay advertisement should ideally be inversely proportional to the maximum fraction of infiltration and is independent of the network size. To increase service availa bility in large networks with few exit relay nodes, Kaleidoscope forwards the actual data traffic across multiple relay hops without risking exposure of exit relays. Using detailed analysis and simulations, we show that Kaleidoscope provides > 90% service availability even under substantial infiltration (close to 0.5% of edges) and when only 30% of the relay nodes are online. We have implemented and deployed our system on a small scale serving over 100,000 requests to 40 censored users (relatively small user base to realize Kaleidoscope’s anti-blocking guarantees) spread across different countries and administrative domains over a 6-month period
- Chipping Away at Censorship Firewalls with User-Generated Content
- Oppressive regimes and even democratic governments restrict Internet access. Existing anti-censorship systems often require users to connect through proxies, but these systems are relatively easy for a censor to discover and block. This paper offers a possible next step in the cen- sorship arms race: rather than relying on a single system or set of proxies to circumvent censorship firewalls, we explore whether the vast deployment of sites that host user-generated content can breach these firewalls. To explore this possibility, we have developed Collage, which allows users to exchange messages through hidden chan- nels in sites that host user-generated content. Collage has two components: a message vector layer for embedding content in cover traffic; and a rendezvous mechanism to allow parties to publish and retrieve messages in the cover traffic. Collage uses user-generated content (e.g. , photo-sharing sites) as “drop sites” for hidden messages. To send a message, a user embeds it into cover traffic and posts the content on some site, where receivers retrieve this content using a sequence of tasks. Collage makes it difficult for a censor to monitor or block these messages by exploiting the sheer number of sites where users can exchange messages and the variety of ways that a mes- sage can be hidden. Our evaluation of Collage shows that the performance overhead is acceptable for sending small messages (e.g., Web articles, email). We show how Collage can be used to build two applications: a direct messaging application, and a Web content delivery system
- Cirripede: Circumvention Infrastructure using Router Redirection with Plausible Deniability
- Many users face surveillance of their Internet communications and a significant fraction suffer from outright blocking of certain destinations. Anonymous communication systems allow users to conceal the destinations they communicate with, but do not hide the fact that the users are using them. The mere use of such systems may invite suspicion, or access to them may be blocked. We therefore propose Cirripede, a system that can be used for unobservable communication with Internet destinations. Cirripede is designed to be deployed by ISPs; it intercepts connections from clients to innocent-looking desti- nations and redirects them to the true destination requested by the client. The communication is encoded in a way that is indistinguishable from normal communications to anyone without the master secret key, while public-key cryptogra- phy is used to eliminate the need for any secret information that must be shared with Cirripede users. Cirripede is designed to work scalably with routers that handle large volumes of traffic while imposing minimal over- head on ISPs and not disrupting existing traffic. This allows Cirripede proxies to be strategically deployed at central lo- cations, making access to Cirripede very difficult to block. We built a proof-of-concept implementation of Cirripede and performed a testbed evaluation of its performance proper- ties
- TapDance: End-to-Middle Anticensorship without Flow Blocking
- In response to increasingly sophisticated state-sponsored Internet censorship, recent work has proposed a new ap- proach to censorship resistance: end-to-middle proxying. This concept, developed in systems such as Telex, Decoy Routing, and Cirripede, moves anticensorship technology into the core of the network, at large ISPs outside the censoring country. In this paper, we focus on two technical obstacles to the deployment of certain end-to-middle schemes: the need to selectively block flows and the need to observe both directions of a connection. We propose a new construction, TapDance, that removes these require- ments. TapDance employs a novel TCP-level technique that allows the anticensorship station at an ISP to function as a passive network tap, without an inline blocking com- ponent. We also apply a novel steganographic encoding to embed control messages in TLS ciphertext, allowing us to operate on HTTPS connections even under asymmetric routing. We implement and evaluate a TapDance proto- type that demonstrates how the system could function with minimal impact on an ISP’s network operations.
* Compromising Reflections - or - How to Read LCD Monitors Around the Corner- Michael Backes, Markus Dürmuth, Dominique Unruh
* We present a novel eavesdropping technique for spying at a distance on data that is displayed on an arbitrary computer screen, including the currently prevalent LCD monitors. Our technique exploits reflections of the screen’s optical emanations in various objects that one commonly finds in close proximity to the screen and uses those reflections to recover the original screen content. Such objects include eyeglasses, tea pots, spoons, plastic bottles, and even the eye of the user. We have demonstrated that this attack can be successfully mounted to spy on even small fonts using inexpensive, off-the-shelf equipment (less than 1500 dollars) from a distance of up to 10 meters. Relying on more expensive equipment allowed us to conduct this attack from over 30 meters away, demonstrating that similar at- tacks are feasible from the other side of the street or from a close-by building. We additionally establish theoretical limitations of the attack; these limitations may help to estimate the risk that this attack can be successfully mounted in a given environment.
* Acoustic Side-Channel Attacks on Printers -Michael Backes,Markus Drmuth,Sebastian Gerling,Manfred Pinkal,Caroline Sporleder
* We examine the problem of acoustic emanations of printers. We present a novel attack that recovers what a dot- matrix printer processing English text is printing based on a record of the sound it makes, if the microphone is close enough to the printer. In our experiments, the attack recovers up to 72% of printed words, and up to 95% if we assume contextual knowledge about the text, with a microphone at a distance of 10 cm from the printer. After an upfront training phase, the attack is fully automated and uses a combination of machine learning, audio processing, and speech recognition techniques, including spectrum features, Hidden Markov Models and linear classification; moreover, it allows for feedback-based incremental learning. We evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures, and we describe how we successfully mounted the attack in-field (with appropriate privacy protections) in a doctor’s practice to recover the content of medical prescriptions.
* Tempest in a Teapot: Compromising Reflections Revisited
* Reflecting objects such as tea pots and glasses, but also diffusely reflecting objects such as a user’s shirt, can be used to spy on confidential data displayed on a monitor. First, we show how reflections in the user’s eye can be exploited for spying on confidential data. Second, we investigate to what extent monitor images can be reconstructed from the diffuse reflections on a wall or the user’s clothes, and provide information- theoretic bounds limiting this type of attack. Third, we evaluate the effectiveness of several countermeasures